Last updated: October 1, 2017 at 19:24 pm
Fishes of the family Nototheniidae, including Arctic and Antarctic cod are adapted to living in the coldest water on Earth (-1.94°C / 28.5°F). Their blood contains proteins called antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) that keep them from freezing. The proteins affect crystal growth and allow blood to flow freely thus keeping the fish alive. Chi-Hing “Christina” Cheng (University of Illinois) has spent two decades studying the Antarctic notothenioids, which make up more than 90 percent of the biomass of the Southern Ocean.
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Jeffrey Gallant is the Editor-in-Chief and Records Keeper of the Diving Almanac. He is also a contributing editor of DIVER Magazine, and the scientific director of the Greenland Shark and Elasmobranch Education and Research Group (GEERG). Jeffrey started diving in 1982.